A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of a seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including angiosperm and the gymnosperm plants.The embryo is developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule.
Economically, seeds are important primarily because they are sources of a variety of foods—for example, the cereal grains, such as wheat, rice, and corn (maize); the seeds of beans, peas, peanuts, soybeans, almonds, sunflowers, hazelnuts, walnuts, pecans, and Brazil nuts. Other useful products provided by seeds are abundant. Margarine production and oils for cooking, painting, and lubrication are available from the seeds of flax, rape, cotton, soybean, poppy, castor bean, coconut, sesame, safflower, sunflower, and various cereal grains. Essential oils are obtained from such sources as juniper berries, used in gin manufacture. Stimulants are obtained from such sources as the seeds of kola, coffee, guarana, and cocoa. Spices—from mustard and nutmeg seeds. from the aril (mace) covering the nutmeg seed; from the seeds and fruits of anise, cumin, dill, caraway, vanilla, black pepper, allspice, and others—form a large group of economic products.Seed Production
Production of high-quality seed is fundamental to modern agriculture. It helps in development, reproduction and spread of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seed production depends upon Soil type rain fall/irrigation and other factors.
Seed, the characteristic reproductive body of both angiosperms (flowering plants) and gymnosperms (e.g., conifers, cycads, and ginkgos). Essentially, a seed consists of a miniature undeveloped plant (the embryo), which, alone or in the company of stored food for its early development after germination, is surrounded by a protective coat (the testa). Frequently small in size and making negligible demands upon their environment, seeds are eminently suited to perform a wide variety of functions the relationships of which are not always obvious: multiplication, perennation (surviving seasons of stress such as winter), dormancy (a state of arrested development), and dispersal. Pollination and the seed habit are considered the most important factors responsible for the overwhelming evolutionary success of the flowering plants, which number more than 300,000 species.
Pesticides are chemicals that prevent insects, weeds, and fungi from damaging crops. Farmers use them to increase the amount of crops they are able to produce.the most commonly used pesticides include:
The primary benefits are the consequences of the pesticides effects – the direct gains expected from their use. For example the effect of killing caterpillars feeding on the crop brings the primary benefit of higher yields and better quality of cabbage. The three main effects result in 26 primary benefits ranging from protection of recreational turf to saved human lives. The secondary benefits are the less immediate or less obvious benefits that result from the primary benefits. They may be subtle, less intuitively obvious, or of longer term. It follows that for secondary benefits it is therefore more difficult to establish cause and effect, but nevertheless they can be powerful justifications for pesticide use. For example the higher cabbage yield might bring additional revenue that could be put towards childrens education or medical care, leading to a healthier, better educated population. There are various secondary benefits identified, ranging from fitter people to conserved biodiversity.