Transport is the physical means whereby goods are moved from the point of production to the place where they are required for consumption. Transport means the movement of goods from one place to another.
In India, a number of transport systems, both obsolete and new, co-exist simultaneously. In Kolkata, hand driven carriages are still prevalent, despite attempts to ban them. Animal transport include of animals such as donkey, horse, mule, buffalo etc. These are more common in villages. In hilly areas, mule and yak are used to climb to higher altitudes. Road vehicle transport includes bus, auto-rickshaws, taxis, cars, scooters, bikes and bicycles. Well-developed bus services are known to operate only in few Indian cities. Over 80% of road traffic is occupied by personal instead of public transport.
However, with the advent of air-conditioned and low floor buses in most cities, people are preferring to use them, over their personal vehicles. Bengaluru was the first city in India to introduce Volvo buses in 2006 and it is also the first to establish an air-conditioned bus stop. Chennai house is one of Asia biggest bus terminus. The oldest Indian state transport system is that of North Bengal State Transport Corporation and is still in operation.
Benifits of Transportation
types of transport
What is Road Transport?
Road transport is a very quick means of transport over short distances. It is also cheaper means of transport over shorter distances. Bus and truck services can be as frequent as one may like. This is not possible in other means of transport. Road transport takes less time for carrying goods from one place to another and thus it helps the businessmen in increasing their turnover. It is more flexible than other means of transport. It provides complete service to the businessmen. But this means of transport is not suitable for longer distances. This means of transport is subject to frequent breakdowns and also difficult to operate during the rainy days. It is irregular and in dependable means of transport because this does not have schedule of timings.
What is Rail Transport?
Railway can carry men and goods over very long distances. It is only the railway transport that can cope with the traffic of heavy machine and materials. Changes in weather do not affect railways. This advantage is not found in other means of transport. Rail transport is more safe as compared with other means of transport. It is more regular. It is the cheapest form of transport for carrying bulky goods over long distances. But this means of transport is costlier for short distances and for small traffic. It is not flexible. It requires heavy investment, so it cannot operate economically in the rural areas where traffic is not adequate. The initial expenditure on railway is very high and this results in high overhead costs.
What is Water Transport?
In water transport initial investment is not required and moreover the maintenance cost also is less. Sea transport is the only feasible means of transport so far as bulky goods are concerned. On natural water ways like rivers and oceans the cost of transportation is less. But this means of transport faces greater risk of storms and other hazards of the sea. This form of transport is slow in speed. It cannot be operated throughout the year due to the monsoon or drying up in some parts of the year.
What is Air Transport?
Air transport is most suitable for carrying goods of perishable nature which require quick delivery. It is also suitable for light goods of high value such as gold, diamonds, jewellery, etc. It provides a regular, convenient, efficient and quick service. Air transport helps in transporting goods to areas inaccessible by any other means of transport. In the event of stoppage of other means of transport due to flood, earthquake or other natural calamities, air transport is the only means of transport which provide articles of necessities. But it is uncertain and unreliable means of transport as it is controlled to a great extent by weather conditions. The cost of operation of air transport is higher as compared to other means of transport. Due to greater degree of possibility of accident this means of transport is considered to be dangerous.